Definition: Threats from actions that convert or degrade habitat in service of モmanagingヤ natural or semi-natural systems, often to improve human welfare

Exposition: This category deals primarily with changes to natural processes such as fire, hydrology, and sedimentation, rather than land use. Thus it does not include threats relating to agriculture (which should be under 2. Agriculture & Aquaculture), or infrastructure (1. Residential & Commercial Development or 4. Transportation & Service Corridors).

7.1 Fire & Fire Suppression

Definition: Suppression or increase in fire frequency and/or intensity outside of its natural range of variation

Exposition: This category focuses on the human activities that lead to either not enough fire or too much fire in the ecosystem in question. If fire escapes from established agricultural lands, it belongs here, if fire is used to clear new agricultural lands, it belongs in the appropriate category in 2. Agriculture & Aquaculture. It also includes damaging “natural” fires in systems that have lost their natural resilience.

Examples:

  • fire suppression to protect homes
  • inappropriate fire management
  • escaped agricultural fires
  • arson
  • campfires
  • fires for hunting

7.2 Dams & Water Management/Use

Definition: Changing water flow patterns from their natural range of variation either deliberately or as a result of other activities

Exposition: This category focuses on the human activities that lead to either not enough water or too much water in the ecosystem in question. Note that homogenizing flows to a constant level may be outside the “natural range of variation.” Dredging belongs in 4.3 Shipping Lanes.

Examples:

  • dam construction
  • release of too little or cold water from dam operations
  • sediment control
  • change in salt regime
  • wetland filling for mosquito control
  • levees and dikes
  • surface water diversion
  • groundwater pumping
  • channelization
  • ditching
  • artificial lakes

7.3 Other Ecosystem Modifications

Definition: Other actions that convert or degrade habitat in service of “managing” natural systems to improve human welfare

Examples:

  • land reclamation projects
  • abandonment of managed lands
  • rip-rap along shoreline
  • mowing grass
  • tree thinning in parks
  • beach construction
  • removal of snags from stream