Definition: Threats from human activities that alter, destroy and disturb habitats and species associated with non-consumptive uses of biological resources

Exposition: Non-consumptive use means that the resource is not removed – multiple people can use the same resource (for example, birdwatching). These threats typically do not permanently destroy habitat except perhaps in extremely severe manifestations.

6.1 Recreational Activities

Definition: People spending time in nature or traveling in vehicles outside of established transport corridors, usually for recreational reasons

Exposition: This category does not include work involving consumptive use of biodiversity – for example disturbance impacts from loggers or hunters would be in the appropriate category in 5. Biological Resource Use. Vehicles and boats in established transport corridors go in 4. Transportation & Service Corridors. The development of permanent recreational or tourist facilities (such as hotels and resorts) should be included under section 1.3 Tourism & Recreation Areas rather than here.


  • off-road vehicles
  • motorboats
  • motorcycles
  • jet-skis
  • snowmobiles
  • ultralight planes
  • dive boats
  • whale watching
  • mountain bikes
  • hikers
  • cross-country skiers
  • hangliders
  • birdwatchers
  • scuba divers
  • pets brought into recreation areas
  • temporary campsites
  • caving
  • rock-climbing

6.2 War, Civil Unrest & Military Exercises

Definition: Actions by formal or paramilitary forces without a permanent footprint

Exposition: This category focuses on military activities that have a large impact on natural habitats, but are not permanently restricted to a single area. Permanent military bases should go under 1.2 Commercial & Industrial Areas. Other military activities might best be assigned to other categories. For example, hunting of specific animals by soldiers living off the land fits under 5.1 Hunting & Collecting Terrestrial Animals.


  • armed conflict
  • mine fields
  • tanks & other military vehicles
  • training exercises & ranges
  • defoliation
  • munitions testing

6.3 Work & Other Activities

Definition: People spending time in or traveling in natural environments for reasons other than recreation, military activities, or research

Exposition: This will probably not be a commonly used category.


  • law enforcement
  • drug smugglers
  • illegal immigrants
  • species research
  • vandalism