Definition: Threats from consumptive use of “wild” biological resources including both deliberate and unintentional harvesting effects; also persecution or control of specific species

Exposition: Consumptive use means that the resource is removed from the system or destroyed – multiple people cannot use the same resource, as they could under 6. Human Intrusions & Disturbance. Threats in the class can affect both target species (harvest of desired trees or fish species) as well as “collateral damage” to non-target species (trees damaged by felling or fisheries bycatch) and habitats (coral reefs destroyed by trawling). Persecution/control involves harming or killing species because they are considered undesirable.

5.1 Hunting & Collecting Terrestrial Animals

Definition: Killing or trapping terrestrial wild animals or animal products for commercial, recreation, subsistence, research or cultural purposes, or for control/persecution reasons; includes accidental mortality/bycatch

Exposition: This category focuses on animals that primarily live in a terrestrial environment. There are obviously some species that live on the terrestrial/aquatic boundary. Hunting otters, beavers, amphibians, polar bears, penguins, waterfowl, and sea birds should (somewhat arbitrarily) go here. Hunting seals, whales and other marine mammals, and freshwater and marine turtles go in 5.4 Fishing & Harvesting Aquatic Resources. Yes, most people “gather” honey, eggs, or insects or other slow moving targets, rather than “hunt” them. But it seems cleaner to keep all animal products as being hunted.

Examples:

  • bushmeat hunting
  • trophy hunting of lions
  • beaver trapping
  • butterfly collecting
  • honey or bird nest hunting
  • wolf control
  • pest control
  • persecution of snakes because of superstition

5.2 Gathering Terrestrial Plants

Definition: Harvesting plants, fungi, and other non-timber/non-animal products for commercial, recreation, subsistence, research or cultural purposes, or for control reasons

Exposition: This category focuses on plants, mushrooms, and other non-animal terrestrial species except trees which are treated in 5.3 Logging & Wood Harvesting.

Examples:

  • wild mushroom collection
  • forage for stall fed animals
  • orchid collection
  • rattan harvesting
  • control of host plants for timber diseases

5.3 Logging & Wood Harvesting

Definition: Harvesting trees and other woody vegetation for timber, fiber, or fuel

Exposition: Felling trees to clear agricultural land goes in 2. Agriculture & Aquaculture. If it is one or a couple timber species that are planted on a rotation cycle, it belongs in 2.2 Wood & Pulp Plantations. If it is multiple species or enrichment plantings in a quasi-natural system, it belongs here.

Examples:

  • clear cutting of hardwoods
  • selective commercial logging of ironwood
  • pulp or woodchip operations
  • fuel wood collection
  • mangrove charcoal production

5.4 Fishing & Harvesting Aquatic Resources

Definition: Harvesting aquatic wild animals or plants for commercial, recreation, subsistence, research, or cultural purposes, or for control/persecution reasons; includes accidental mortality/bycatch

Exposition: This category focuses on all kinds of species that are primarily found in an aquatic environment. There are obviously some species that live on the terrestrial/aquatic boundary. Hunting otters, beavers, amphibians, polar bears, penguins, waterfowl, and sea birds should (somewhat arbitrarily) go in 5.1 Hunting & Collecting Terrestrial Animals. Hunting seals, whales and other marine mammals, and freshwater and marine turtles go here.

Examples:

  • trawling for tuna
  • blast fishing for grouper
  • spear fishing for sharks
  • shellfish harvesting
  • whaling
  • seal hunting
  • turtle egg collection
  • live coral collection
  • seaweed collection