Definition: Threats from long narrow transport corridors and the vehicles that use them including associated wildlife mortality

Exposition: This class includes transportation corridors outside of human settlements and industrial developments. These corridors create specific stresses to biodiversity including especially fragmentation of habitats and lead to other threats including farms, invasive species, and poachers.

4.1 Roads & Railroads

Definition: Surface transport on roadways and dedicated tracks

Exposition: Off-road vehicles are treated in the appropriate category in 6. Human Intrusions & Disturbance. If there are small roads associated with a major utility line, they belong in 4.2 Utility & Service Lines.


  • highways
  • secondary roads
  • primitive roads
  • logging roads
  • bridges & causeways
  • road kill
  • fencing associated with roads
  • freight/passenger/mining railroads

4.2 Utility & Service Lines

Definition: Transport of energy & resources

Exposition: Cell phone and other communication towers connected by small access roads belong here. If there are small utility lines using a road right of way, they belong in 4.1 Roads & Railroads. Oil spills from pipelines should go in 9.2 Industrial & Military Effluents.


  • electrical & phone wires
  • aqueducts
  • oil & gas pipelines
  • electrocution of wildlife

4.3 Shipping Lanes

Definition: Transport on and in freshwater and ocean waterways

Exposition: This category includes dredging and other activities that maintain shipping lanes. Anchor damage from dive boats belongs in 6.1 Recreational Activities.


  • dredging
  • canals
  • shipping lanes
  • ships running into whales
  • wakes from cargo ships

4.4 Flight Paths

Definition: Air and space transport

Exposition: Airports fall into 1.2 Commercial & Industrial Areas.


  • flight paths
  • jets impacting birds