Definition: Threats from farming and ranching as a result of agricultural expansion and intensification, including silviculture, mariculture and aquaculture

Exposition: Threats resulting from the use of agrochemicals, rather than the direct conversion of land to agricultural use, should be included under 9.3 Agricultural & Forestry Effluents.

2.1 Annual & Perennial Non-Timber Crops

Definition: Crops planted for food, fodder, fiber, fuel, or other uses


  • wheat farms
  • sugar cane plantations
  • rice paddies
  • hillside rice production
  • household swidden plots
  • banana or pineapple plantations
  • mango or apple orchards
  • olive or date groves
  • vineyards
  • oil palm plantations
  • tea or coffee plantations
  • mixed agroforestry systems
  • coca plantations

2.2 Wood & Pulp Plantations

Definition: Stands of trees planted for timber or fiber outside of natural forests, often with non-native species

Exposition: If it is one or a couple timber species that are planted on a rotation cycle, it belongs here. If it is multiple species or enrichment plantings in a quasi-natural system, it belongs in 5.3 Logging & Wood Harvesting.


  • teak or eucalyptus plantations
  • loblolly pine silviculture
  • Christmas tree farms

2.3 Livestock Farming & Ranching

Definition: Domestic terrestrial animals raised in one location on farmed or non-local resources (farming); also domestic or semi-domesticated animals allowed to roam in the wild and supported by natural habitats (ranching)

Exposition: In farming, animals are kept in captivity; in ranching they are allowed to roam in wild habitats. If a few animals are mixed in a subsistence cropping system, it belong in 2.1 Annual & Perennial Non-Timber Crops. Forage of wild resources for stall-fed animals falls under 5.2 Gathering Terrestrial Plants.


  • cattle feed lots
  • chicken farms
  • dairy farms
  • cattle ranching
  • goat, camel, or yak herding

2.4 Marine & Freshwater Aquaculture

Definition: Aquatic animals raised in one location on farmed or non-local resources; also hatchery fish allowed to roam in the wild

Exposition: Farmed animals are kept in captivity; hatchery fish are put into wild habitats and are the aquatic equivalent of terrestrial ranching.


  • shrimp or fin fish aquaculture
  • fish ponds on farms
  • hatchery salmon
  • seeded shellfish beds
  • artificial algal beds