Definition: Threats from long-term climatic changes which may be linked to global warming and other severe climatic/weather events that are outside of the natural range of variation, or potentially can wipe out a vulnerable species or habitat

Exposition: Strictly speaking climatic events may be part of natural disturbance regimes in many ecosystems. But they are a threat if a species or habitat is damaged from other threats and has lost its resilience and is thus vulnerable to the disturbance. Many climatic events may also be increasing in frequency or intensity outside their natural range of variation due to human causes

11.1 Habitat Shifting & Alteration

Definition: Major changes in habitat composition and location

Exposition: This category focuses on the habitat effects of climate change.


  • sea-level rise
  • desertification
  • tundra thawing
  • coral bleaching

11.2 Droughts

Definition: Periods in which rainfall falls below the normal range of variation


  • severe lack of rain
  • loss of surface water sources

11.3 Temperature Extremes

Definition: Periods in which temperatures exceed or go below the normal range of variation


  • heat waves
  • cold spells
  • oceanic temperature changes
  • disappearance of glaciers/sea ice

11.4 Storms & Flooding

Definition: Extreme precipitation and/or wind events


  • thunderstorms
  • tropical storms
  • hurricanes
  • cyclones
  • tornadoes
  • hailstorms
  • ice storms or blizzards
  • dust storms
  • erosion of beaches during storms