Definition: Threats from human settlements or other non-agricultural land uses with a substantial footprint

Exposition: These are threats tied to a defined and relatively compact area, which distinguishes them from those in 4. Transportation & Service Corridors which have a long narrow footprint, and 6. Human Intrusions & Disturbance which do not have an explicit footprint.

1.1 Housing & Urban Areas

Definition: Human cities, towns, and settlements including non-housing development typically integrated with housing

Exposition: This category obviously dovetails somewhat arbitrarily with 1.2 Commercial & Industrial Areas. As a general rule, however, if people live in the development, it should fall into this category.


  • urban areas
  • suburbs
  • villages
  • ranchettes
  • vacation homes
  • shopping areas
  • offices
  • schools
  • hospitals
  • birds flying into windows

1.2 Commercial & Industrial Areas

Definition: Factories and other commercial centers

Exposition: Shipyards and airports fall into this category, whereas shipping lanes and flight paths fall under 4. Transportation & Service Corridors. Dams are NOT included here, rather they are in 7.2 Dams & Water Management/Use.


  • military bases
  • factories
  • stand-alone shopping centers
  • office parks
  • power plants
  • train yards
  • ship yards
  • airports
  • landfills

1.3 Tourism & Recreation Areas

Definition: Tourism and recreation sites with a substantial footprint

Exposition: There is a fine line between housing and vacation housing/resorts. Be careful not to confuse this category, which focuses on the habitat effects of recreation areas, with those in 6.1 Recreational Activities, which focuses on the disturbance effects posed by recreation.


  • ski areas
  • golf courses
  • resorts
  • cricket fields
  • county parks
  • afghan goat polo fields
  • campgrounds